Before we answer what types of thermoplastics can be thermoformed, let us go over what is thermoforming and the different types of thermoforming. What is thermoforming?
Plastic manufacturers use a process called thermoforming. First, a plastic sheet is heated to a temperature at which it becomes pliable. Using vacuum or pressure, the sheet takes the shape of the mould / tool. Then, the malleable plastic is cooled so it can harden into the desired shape.
Types of thermoforming
Pressure forming and vacuum forming are the most common thermoforming techniques. Vacuum thermoforming works by heating a plastic sheet that is stretched over a single-surface mold. The plastic sheet is then stretched against the mold using a vacuum. The vacuum forming process only works for certain types of plastic materials. These materials can include HIPS, PVC, HDPE, ABS, and PC. Vacuum forming is ideal for permanent, sturdy products that include:
Heavy-duty plastic components for weather-resistant equipment
Automotive parts like dashboards and interior components
Airplane or bus bins and interior parts
Containers or components for medical supplies
Consumer packaging for cosmetics, food, and beverage products
Household plastics like appliances and yard equipment
Retail displays and promotional signage
Pressure forming is similar to vacuum forming. However, there are select distinct differences between the two. One difference is the way the plastic is fitted over the mold. The pressure forming process uses compressed air to shape the plastic sheet into the mold. A pressure box is applied to the non-mold side of the sheet, and the extra pressure is used to create intricate details on the sheet.
Pressure forming delivers similar results as injection molding but for a fraction of the cost due to lower tooling expenses. In addition, it’s an efficient and cost-effective process, so many manufacturers may opt for pressure forming during a product’s prototyping phase. Pressure forming is ideal for products that require sharp details, such as:
Medical devices and parts
Exterior panels with gauges or controls
Housings for electrical devices
User-facing parts like doors and covers
Types of Thermoforming Plastics
At Indu Thermoformers, we provide a comprehensive selection of product development and manufacturing services. We offer a wide range of thick-gauge and thin-gauge thermoforming plastics to ensure quality and consistency with every order.
That’s why we offer a variety of thermoformed plastics to meet our client’s needs. Our expert team can work with you to select the plastics and processes that will work best for your needs.
Here are some of the thermoformed plastics we offer and their common uses:
HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene) HDPE, or high-density polyethylene, is an FDA compliant thermoformed plastic. It’s chemical resistant, absorbs a low amount of moisture, and it’s very durable. HDPE can be used for various purposes and is commonly used for food handling and containers. It can be used for thick or thin-gauge requirements. HMWPE (High Molecular Weight Polyethylene) High Molecular Weight Polyethylene is similar to HDPE as it’s also versatile and works well for thick or thin-gauge applications. It’s commonly used for material handling industry needs, such as wear parts and conveyor components. It’s also used for chopping boards. ABS (Acrylontrite Butadiene) Acrylonitrile butadiene is an opaque polymer that can be used for both thin-gauge and thick-gauge processes, and it works great with the vacuum-forming process. It’s a stiff plastic with good impact strength. Acrylonitrile butadiene can be produced in a wide variety of colors and textures, so it’s used for a broad selection of applications. ABS is a flame-retardant thermoformed plastic. It’s a low-cost option that’s highly resistant to impact, which is why it’s used for a variety of applications. ABS is commonly used for machine housings, popular toys, 3D printing components, car parts, and recyclable containers. PC (Polycarbonate) Polycarbonate is used for thick and thin-gauge applications. It’s a clear plastic with high impact strength that’s incredibly heat resistant. These properties make it an excellent alternative to glass. PC is typically melted and placed into a mold so it can be formed into a shape. PC is commonly used in the production of items like safety helmets, CDs, vehicle headlights, bottles, construction items, and more. PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) Polyvinyl chloride, better known as PVC, is one of the most widely-used thermoformed plastics. Sheets of PVC can be used for both thick-gauge and thin-gauge thermoforming applications. Thermoformed PVC can be found in several products, including faux leather clothing and shoes, electrical cables, flooring, medical device components, and cables. Vacuum forming is an ideal shaping process for PVC products. PP (Polypropylene) Polypropylene is used for both thick and thin-gauge applications. It’s a material that’s chemical-resistant, rigid, and has good impact strength. It also performs well at higher temperatures. These durable characteristics and their elastic properties make PP one of the most popular thermoformed plastics. It’s regularly used for toys, packaging supplies, and hinges. TPO (Thermoplastic olefin) Thermoplastic olefin is a resin blend that’s exclusively used for thick-gauge applications. This material has fantastic impact resistance and it’s available with a high-gloss finish. However, it can be more difficult to form this thermoplastic than other options. It’s used for car components like dashboards and bumpers. Acrylic Acrylic is used for thick-gauge processes. This transparent thermoplastic is a cost-effective glass alternative that’s shatter-resistant. It’s lightweight yet durable and able to withstand prolonged UV exposure. Thermoformed acrylic is used to produce commercial signs, retail displays and shelving, fish tanks, TV screens, light fixture casings, and more. Vacuum forming is the ideal thermoforming process for molding acrylic signs. HIPS (High-Impact Polystyrene) High-impact polystyrene is a versatile thermoformed plastic used in both thin-gauge and thick-gauge applications. It’s ideal for vacuum forming due to its malleable nature. It’s one of the world’s most widely-used plastic polymers. Thermoformed HIPS can be found in items like plastic cutlery, food containers, medical trays, electrical insulation, etc. PETG (Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol) Polyethylene terephthalate glycol is a clear plastic with great impact strength. It works well for thin-gauge and thick-gauge applications and works best with a vacuum forming process. It’s an ideal choice for thermoforming because it’s sturdy and can be molded with sharp detail. PETG is used to create food and beverage containers, sneeze guards, signage, medical packaging, and more. It has several advantages and is cost-effective, easy to mold, and recyclable.